SystemThread, a class within sqldk.dll, can be considered to be at the root of SQLOS’s scheduling capabilities. While it doesn’t expose much obviously exciting functionality, it encapsulates a lot of the state that is necessary to give a thread a sense of self in SQLOS, serving as the beacon for any code to find its way to an associated SQLOS scheduler etc. I won’t go into much of the SQLOS object hierarchy here, but suffice it to say that everything becomes derivable by knowing one’s SystemThread. As such, this class jumps the gap between a Windows thread and the object-oriented SQLOS.
Continue reading “Unsung SQLOS: the SystemThread”
In my previous post, Threading for humans, I ended with a brief look at TLS, thread-local storage. Given its prominent position in SQLOS, I’d like to take you on a deeper dive into TLS, including some x64 implementation details. Far from being a dry subject, this gets interesting when you look at how TLS helps to support the very abstraction of a thread, as well as practical questions like how cleanly any/or efficiently SQLOS encapsulates mechanisms peculiar to Windows on Intel, or for that matter Windows as opposed to Linux.
Continue reading “Windows, mirrors and a sense of self”
I used to think of threading as a complicated subject that everybody except me had a grip on. Turns out that it’s actually simple stuff with complicated repercussions, and no, many people don’t really get it, so I was in good company all along. Because I’m heading into some SQLOS thread internals, this is a good time to take stock and revisit a few fundamentals. This will be an idiosyncratic explanation, and one that ignores many complexities inside the black box – CPU internals, the added abstraction of a hypervisor, and programming constructs like thread pooling and tasks – for the sake of focusing on functionality directly exposed to the lower levels of software.
Continue reading “Threading for humans”
I’m slowly working towards some more juicy subjects again, but for the moment it is sensible to get fundamentals out of the way. The use of linked lists by SQL Server and SQLOS is a great place to start, because so much is built upon them. Grok this and you’re set for countless hours of fun.
From general exposure to SQLOS scheduling, many of us are familiar with concepts like “the worker is put on the runnable list”. At a high level this is simple to grasp, and the good news is that not much is hidden from us in the implementation detail. Nonetheless, it seems that it’s only systems programmers who deal with these details nowadays, but it’s still useful for the rest of us to get a chance to get comfortable with such internals.
Linked list implementation in SQLOS
A SQLOS doubly linked list follows a common Windows pattern based on a ListEntry structure. This is remarkably simple, containing only two pointer-sized members, i.e. taking up 16 bytes on x64:
- flink (forward link) – a pointer to the next entry in the list
- blink (backward link) – a pointer to the previous entry in the list
Continue reading “Unsung SQLOS: linked lists”