#TSQL2SDAY: Sing a song of unsigned ints

TSQL2SDAY logo

Occasionally we do as we are told. And when Brent Ozar tells us that we should celebrate the first T-SQL Tuesday of 2017 by writing about SQL Server bugs and enhancement requests, the only appropriate response is “What color, sir?”
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Indirection indigestion, virtual function calls and SQLOS

One of Slava Oks’s classic posts from the 2005 era is
A new platform layer in SQL Server 2005 to exploit new hardware capabilities and their trends. I have occasionally revisited it as a kind of SQLOS manifesto, and some things which at first I found mystifying have become clearer over the years.

In many ways, it seems that the more recent SQLOSv2/SQLPAL work is a simple case of continuing with a project that has been organically evolving since the SQL Server 7 User Mode Scheduler, and rooted in classic Stonebraker: just how far can we assume control of core OS functions within an RDBMS process?
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Scheduler stories: The myth of the waiter list

‘Tis the season to be controversial, so let’s take a stroll down memory lane to Ken Henderson’s classic Inside the SQL Server 2000 User Mode Scheduler:

The waiter list maintains a list of workers waiting on a resource. When a UMS worker requests a resource owned by another worker, it puts itself on the waiter list for the resource and enters an infinite wait state for its associated event object. When the worker that owns the resource is ready to release it, it is responsible for scanning the list of workers waiting on the resource and moving them to the runnable list, as appropriate. And when it hits a yield point, it is responsible for setting the event of the first worker on the runnable list so that the worker can run. This means that when a worker frees up a resource, it may well undertake the entirety of the task of moving those workers that were waiting on the resource from the waiter list to the runnable list and signaling one of them to run.

John Tenniel's White Rabbit from "Alice in Wonderland"

The lists behind the legend

I have not gone as far as opening up my rusty copy of SQL Server 2000 to see how Ken’s description fits in there, but I am now pretty certain that the above quote has transmuted over the years into a common misunderstanding about SQLOS scheduling mechanics.

Now nothing Ken said is untrue or particularly out of date. It is just that we often hear “the waiter list” (by implication handling resource waits) described as an attribute of a scheduler, which is not the case.

Let’s revisit when the scheduler code runs, and what it does:

  • A worker will yield, either because it needs to wait for a resource, or because it is eaten up with guilt over reaching the end of its allotted quantum.
  • The act of yielding means that scheduler code (methods on the SOS_Scheduler class) gets invoked.
  • After a bit of housekeeping for the common good of all workers sharing the scheduler, control is transferred back to a worker to do its thing – this may even be the same worker who originally yielded.
  • The housekeeping consists of checking for aborted tasks, processing pending I/Os, and checking for I/O completions and timer list timeouts.

The single most important list that a scheduler owns is the collection of runnable workers, that is, the subset of workers belonging to this scheduler who are not waiting for anything other than CPU. This has variously been described as a list and a queue; I shall be using the term “runnable queue” by convention, but be aware that it is a data structure that has changed over the years and isn’t a simple queue.

A scheduler has one piece of “creative” interaction with this runnable queue, and it comes with only two variables:

  • When a context switch is requested by an outgoing worker owning the scheduler, the scheduler code has to choose which one of potentially multiple workers is going to be its next owner.
  • The incoming worker gets given a quantum expiry date, by which time it is expected to yield.

Core scheduler code running during context switching only dequeues runnable workers, and at such moments a given scheduler only looks at its own runnable queue. In contrast, code running all over the place, including in the context of workers belonging to other schedulers, may enqueue workers on to the runnable queue.

Time for a simple diagram:

Someone to watch over me

What I’m trying to get across here is that each instance of a waitable resource has its own wait list, and the scheduler has no interest in this, because a scheduler only acts upon its runnable queue. Seen from a different angle, once a worker is waiting on a resource, its scheduler doesn’t care, because it can’t and won’t manage the waiting logic of something like a latch. This splits the responsibilities neatly in two:

  • The synchronisation class guarding a resource (which inevitably will be built upon an EventInternal) stands watch over all the workers queueing up to have a ride on that resource. The act of granting access to a worker involves moving the worker from the wait list and getting it on to the runnable queue of that scheduler’s worker, and this is achieved by the synchronisation class.
  • The scheduler, in turn, doesn’t decide who is runnable, but it does get to pick which of the runnable workers (however they reached that state) runs next.

The I/O and timer lists

There are however two cases where the scheduler decides to make a worker runnable in the normal course of events. One is when a worker was waiting on I/O to complete, where periodic scheduler housekeeping is the mechanism by which SQLOS takes note of the I/O completion. At this point some workers who were on the I/O list may find themselves moved to the runnable queue just before the next worker is picked to be granted ownership of the scheduler – the lucky winner might be one of these workers, or it may be someone else who has been runnable for a while.

The second, and actually more interesting case, is the timer list. In its simplest use case, this is where you will find workers executing T-SQL WAITFOR statements. The list is neatly ordered by timer expiry date, and at each invocation of the scheduler context-switch housekeeping, workers whose timer expiry dates have now passed will be moved to the runnable queue.

What makes a timer list particularly interesting though, is when it implements a resource wait timeout, for instance a lock timeout. In this scenario we actually have a worker waiting on two things simultaneously: a resource and a timer. If the resource is acquired before the timer expires, all is good: the worker goes on to the runnable queue, and upon being woken up it finds a thumbs-up as the return value of its resource acquisition call.

However, should the timer expire before the resource has been acquired, the scheduler will actually venture forth and take the worker off that waiter list before making it runnable and setting an error return value as wake-up call. Think of it as every teenager’s worst nightmare: you’re not home by curfew, so Mom comes to your dodgy party to drag your sorry ass home. And then you wake up with a hangover and note stuck to your forehead reading “No cake for you”.

Whither next?

I tried to keep this comparatively high-level, but might take a nice little detour into the WorkerTimerRequest some day if time permits.

There you have it. Be home on time and have a thread-safe festive season.

Fishing for wait types in WinDbg

Last night a #sqlhelp question from Monica Rathbun (@SQLEspresso) caught my eye:

@SQLEspresso Twitter question

Now some of us take way too much delight in worrying about obscure wait types, and since I’ve recently been in preemptive territory I thought I should take some degree of interest. Spoiler alert: I did nothing to solve Monica’s problem, but my attempt to figure out where the wait type might emanate from made me realise that this is worth a blog post.

Without getting hung up on the detail, here is a very crude and simple way to hunt for areas of SQL Server that may use a particular wait type. The only prerequisite is that you need to be willing and able to attach Windbg to SQL Server, and that you have public symbols loaded.

In this case I was looking for PREEMPTIVE_COM_RELEASE, and sys.dm_xe_map_values tells me that on my 2014 RTM instance it has an index of 01d4 hexadecimal. Crazy as it sounds, I’m going to do a simple search through the code to look for places that magic number is used. As a two-byte (word) pattern we’ll get lots of false positives, but fortunately wait types are internally doublewords, with only one bit set in the high-order word. In other words, we’re going to look for the pattern 000101d4, 000201d4, 000401d4 and so forth up to 800001d4. Ignore the meaning of when which bit is going to be set; with only sixteen permutations, it’s quick enough to try them all.

Let’s focus on sqllang as the likely source – the below would apply to any other module too.

Upon starting the debugger, the module load addresses are listed right away. In my case, I got this for sqllang:

ModLoad: 00007ffe`23870000 00007ffe`25ad7000   C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL12.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Binn\sqllang.dll

So we have a start and end memory address. Take note of the length in bytes, using Windbg as a calculator:

0:063> ? 07ffe`25ad7000 - 7ffe`23870000
Evaluate expression: 36073472 = 00000000`02267000

Great. Now we have everything we need. The s command searches for patterns in a range of memory, and we’ll use the -d flag to make it a doubleword search. First few tries come up empty:

0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 000101d4
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 000201d4
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 000401d4
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 000801d4

But now we get one:

0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 001001d4
00007ffe`287d39f8  001001d4 8948f633 48602474 68247489  ....3.H.t$`H.t$h

Ignore everything other than the address at the start of the line – we’re not expecting the byte dump to make sense to the human eye. Let’s see what piece of code this belongs to – the uf disassembles the function that this piece of memory falls in.

0:063> uf 0x7ffe`287d39f8

I’m not even going to show you the output, because this one turned out to be a red herring – experience and/or intuition needed to confirm that. But let’s go on…

 
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 002001d4
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 004001d4
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 008001d4
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 010001d4
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 020001d4
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 040001d4
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 080001d4
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 100001d4

Still nothing, but then we strike gold:

 
0:063> s -d 0x7ffe`23870000 L0x2267000 200001d4
00007ffe`246a3fe4  200001d4 244c8d48 32bee840 4890ff1d  ... H.L$@..2...H
00007ffe`246a6694  200001d4 244c8d48 0c0ee840 4890ff1d  ... H.L$@......H
00007ffe`246a8d44  200001d4 244c8d48 e55ee840 4890ff1c  ... H.L$@.^....H
00007ffe`246ac8a4  200001d4 244c8d48 a9fee840 4890ff1c  ... H.L$@......H
00007ffe`246b0404  200001d4 244c8d48 6e9ee840 4890ff1c  ... H.L$@..n...H
... and many more!

Try the uf trick again on the first one:

0:063> uf 0x7ffe`246a3fe4

And we get rewarded with a disassembly of the function sqllang!IWrapInterface<IAccessor>::Release – this one pretty much comes with flashing lights given that IAccessor reeks of COM and we were expecting something involving “RELEASE”. I’ll spare you the bulk of the assembly dump, but would like to highlight the bit that confirms the setup of a preemptive wait type:

00007ffe`246a3fe3 bad4010020      mov     edx,200001D4h
00007ffe`246a3fe8 488d4c2440      lea     rcx,[rsp+40h]
00007ffe`246a3fed e8be321dff      call    sqllang!AutoSwitchPreemptive::AutoSwitchPreemptive (00007ffe`238772b0)

That assignment to the edx register means that the encoded wait type is the second parameter to the AutoSwitchPreemptive constructor. And while it may not always be a recognisable setup, in this case I was already familiar with AutoSwitchPreemptive (see here).

Now this kind of trawling is by no means scientific. The wait type could have been loaded from a memory address, in which case it wouldn’t have been hard-coded in the function. And of course without the code running in context, it doesn’t tell you what kind of call stack it might show up in – only running the relevant code paths and catching the wait through a breakpoint or XEvent will do that. But as a quick and dirty way of hunting for wait type usage in a module up there on the marble slab? Hey, it works for me.

The DMV diaries: Worker, task, request and session state

We have all been there. You believe that a certain status (e.g. is the order shipped?) lives in a simple database column, only to find that it comes from a view built on a view with all kinds of creative CASE statements. And it may look ugly, but at the end of the day, you have to admit that it successfully serves the purpose of exposing business data in the way that users expect to see it.

Guess what: The “V” in “DMV” exists for a similar reason. Today I’ll be whizzing through the various ways in which the status of a running piece of work is exposed to us in sys.dm_os_workers, sys.dm_os_tasks, sys.dm_exec_requests, and sys.dm_exec_sessions.
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Scheduler stories: Going Preemptive

SQLOS is built upon the idea of cooperative, AKA non-preemptive, scheduling: out of any given collection of threads belonging to a scheduler, only one will own the scheduler at a given moment. To the degree that these cooperative threads represent the only work done by the underlying CPU, this means that the thread owning the scheduler really owns the CPU. Of course, a CPU will occasionally get side-tracked into doing other work, so the SQLOS scheduler as “virtual CPU” only represents a chunk of the real CPU, but we live in the expectation that this is a suitably large chunk.

John Tenniel's White Rabbit from "Alice in Wonderland"

It is understandable when such competition for the CPU comes from outside of SQL Server, but it can also be instigated from within SQL Server itself. This is the world of preemptive – or if you prefer, antisocial – scheduling.
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Scheduler stories: Interacting with the Windows scheduler

In the previous post, The joy of fiber mode, we saw how a fiber mode scheduler firmly controls which worker runs on a thread at a given moment. While it can’t positively ensure that the thread in question remains running all the time, the soul of the scheduler lives in that one thread, and as long as the thread runs, the scheduler gets invoked by its team of fiber workers, dispatching them in an appropriate order.
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Scheduler stories: The joy of fiber mode

Probably the funniest thing I had ever seen on stage was a two-hander called “Frank ‘n Stein”. It’s a telling of the classic Frankenstein story, with the physical comedy of two actors having to rotate continuously between a large number of roles, including a whole crowd chasing the monster. This was all made possible by them never leaving the stage, but instead changing characters in front of the audience, using only rudimentary props to help differentiate the characters.

If this is the only thing you remember about fiber mode scheduling, it should see you through.
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Scheduler Stories: When does your scheduler run?

I am planning to burn a fair number of cycles on SQLOS scheduling internals for the foreseeable future, and with some luck, this turns into an interesting series. OS scheduling is already a subject that belongs “on the other side of the looking glass”, and this only gets more interesting when we look at user-mode SOS_Scheduler scheduling built on top of it.

If I don’t specifically mention a version, my frame of reference is SQL Server 2014. Yes, things changed since then, but the 2012-2014 scheduler is a good starting point, and the fundamental mechanisms I’ll initially cover have changed very little since the User Mode Scheduler (UMS) of SQL Server 7.0.
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A spanking new ReaderWriterSpinlock

Well, I never. There is life in the old spinlock yet!

Being a synchronisation fetishist, I took great interest in last week’s great blog post by Sanjay Mishra and Arvind Shyamsundar about the ReaderWriterSpinlock added in 2016 CU2. Great story, happy ending, room for a sequel, all good news.

We have already seen recent improvement in the reader-writer lock algorithm, so clearly people are finding more corners to squeeze. Now what, pray tell, is a reader-writer spinlock?
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